Multidrug resistant Tuberculosis

  • Filename: multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: 9789401140843
  • Release Date: 2012-12-06
  • Number of pages: 312
  • Author: I. Bastian
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media



Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: past, present and future Ivan Bastian and Franyoise Portaels Mycobacteriology Unit. Institute of Tropical Medicine. Antwerp. Belgium The Lord hath created medicines out of the earth and he that is wise will not abhor them. Ecclesiasticus 38:4, quoted by Selman Waksman when accepting the 1952 Nobel Prize for Medicine that was awarded for the discovery of the first effective antituberculosis drug. streptomycin. which was derived from the soil bacterium, Streptomyces grisells. 1. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE This book has been published at the close of the twentieth century when the medical profession and the general community are increasingly concerned about the threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB)[1. 2]. However, at this epoch, it is enlightening to move back from our immediate concerns about MDRTB 'hot spots' in Asia, South America, and the former Soviet Union [3], and to place our current predicament in an historical context. If the results of the global survey of antituberculosis drug resistance conducted by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) can be extrapolated, only 2. 2% of TB cases worldwide are due to multi drug resistant strains [3]. At the beginning of the 20th century, all TB cases were refractory to all available therapies. Great advances had been made during the 19th century in the understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of TB, and in the diagnosis of the disease (reviewed in references 4-7).

Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis MDR TB New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2013 Edition

  • Filename: multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-new-insights-for-the-healthcare-professional-2013-edition.
  • ISBN: 9781481654265
  • Release Date: 2013-07-22
  • Number of pages: 34
  • Author:
  • Publisher: ScholarlyEditions



Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Additional Research in a compact format. The editors have built Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Additional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB): New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Timebomb The Global Epidemic of Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

  • Filename: timebomb-the-global-epidemic-of-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: 9780071389723
  • Release Date: 2001-11-05
  • Number of pages: 320
  • Author: Lee Reichman
  • Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional



"This is an excellent book. It should be read by all who are interested in any aspect of Tuberculosis, including the growing problem of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis." Journal of American Medical Association "The book serves an important function, relaying statistics and TB hot spots, proposing funding and international standardized treatments. Government officials, researchers and nonprofit health organizations will likely cast this as the authoritative book on the subject." Publishers Weekly "Like other recent works on the threat of infectious diseases such as Laurie Garrett's The Coming Plague, Timebomb has the power of fiction and it is sometimes easy to forget that it is not. Unlike the Garrett book, which is more a collection of short dramatic stories collectively telling a big picture about our coexistence and evolution with microbes, Reichman selects one story and presents it in novel form with better material that most science fiction. The book is organized in a clear and riveting manner. Within the narrative style, the book is rich with up-to-the-minute details and references that add to its depth. An incredible account of politics and disease dynamics occurring at all levels, Timebomb helps us realize that controlling or eradicating TB is not just about science and facts; likely if it were, TB would have long been relegated to the history books." Nature Medicine Magazine Tuberculosis, supposedly defeated by antibiotics half a century ago, has returned in a highly contagious and fatal new form that cannot be treated with conventional drugs. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), could cause some 10 million deaths over the next decade and is thriving in the overcrowded prisons of the former Soviet Union. As Timebomb explains in unnerving detail, the virtual collapse of the world's borders means that refugees, tourists, immigrants, business travelers, and others can spread the TB bacillus very efficiently. London, for example, has experienced a 100% increase in reported cases in the past 10 years. Written by the world's preeminent TB expert and an award-winning medical and health writer, Timebomb details the evolution and the current state of the MDR-TB epidemic, interweaving the science of MDR-TB with personal stories of people whose lives have been threatened by the deadly bacteria.

Multidrug resistant Tuberculosis

  • Filename: multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: OCLC:708248180
  • Release Date: 2010
  • Number of pages: 2
  • Author: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (U.S.). Division of Tuberculosis Elimination
  • Publisher:



"Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is TB that is resistant to at least two of the best anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin. These drugs are considered first-line drugs and are used to treat all persons with TB disease."--Page 1.

Multi drug resistant tuberculosis

  • Filename: multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: PSU:000065517949
  • Release Date: 2008-01
  • Number of pages: 55
  • Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Foreign Affairs. Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health
  • Publisher: Government Printing Office



Tuberculosis and Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

  • Filename: tuberculosis-and-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: 1628083093
  • Release Date: 2013-01-01
  • Number of pages: 121
  • Author: Suhail Ahmad
  • Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated



Tuberculosis (TB), causing nine million active disease cases and 1.5 million deaths every year, is a formidable public health challenge, particularly in poor and developing countries around the world. Major reasons for global burden of TB include association of active disease with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection or other underlying immunosuppressive conditions such as diabetes and increasing incidence of drug-resistant, multidrug-resistant (MDR) (resistant at least to rifampicin and isoniazid) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) (additionally resistant to a fluoroquinolone plus kanamycin/amikacin/capreomycin) strains of M. tuberculosis. While treatment of drug-susceptible TB is effective in >95 percent of disease cases, supervised therapy for >6 months is challenging. Inadequate/inappropriate therapy due to inability of poor patients to pay for drugs and non-adherence to treatment (regimen and duration) often results in much lower cure rates and evolution of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis due to mutations occurring at a predictable rate in genes encoding drug targets. Sequential accumulation of mutations results in evolution of MDR and XDR strains of M. tuberculosis. Today, drug-resistant TB and MDR-TB have become prevalent in many parts of the world and XDR-TB strains are emerging rapidly. While MDR-TB is difficult to treat, XDR-TB is untreatable in most developing countries.

Timebomb

  • Filename: timebomb.
  • ISBN: 0071359249
  • Release Date: 2002
  • Number of pages: 240
  • Author: Lee B. Reichman
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies



Two billion people-- one-third of the world's population--are infected with latent tuberculosis. Ten percent of those infected will develop active TB in their lifetimes. A scourge supposedly defeated by antibiotics half a century ago, tuberculosis kills more people today than ever before in history. And the numbers aren't getting any better. Worse yet, this ancient disease is undergoing a metamorphosis, adapting to our misused medications, growing stronger, becoming unbeatable--becoming multi-drug- resistant. Dubbed "Ebola with wings," tuberculosis flies through the air that we breathe. It is predicted to kill 30 million people over the next decade. It percolates in hot spots all over the globe, from Brazil to China, from India to Russia. It thrives in the congested prison systems of Siberia, where 30 men and the infection are crowded into a single, airless, smoke-filled cell and there's no infection control for staff and employees. Since the economic collapse of the Soviet Union, high crime rates, the rising tide of HIV/AIDS, and political unrest have combined to make Eastern Europe a breeding-ground for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). And every day, international flights touch down on the doorstep of the western world, potentially carrying the deadly disease into small towns and bustling metropolises. With clarity and unnerving detail, authors Dr. Lee Reichman and Janice Hopkins Tanne take us into the world of MDR-TB--inside the dank prisons where the disease is breeding, and into the high-tech labs where the battle is being fought. We take a front-row seat in an operating room where the removal of a TB-devastated lung is rendered in gripping detail. We follow anoutreach worker on her daily rounds in a dangerous and disease-ridden city. And we travel deep inside the bacterium itself to observe how it attacks, grows, and too-often triumphs within the human body. When governments cast a blind eye to blatant warning signs, when pharmaceutical companies won't develop new drugs for "unfashionable" diseases, it is time for the alarm to be sounded. An urgent call to arms, "Timebomb reveals the unheard-of true story behind the global epidemic of MDR-TB, and of the men and women who are laboring on the frontlines, in real-life biowarfare, pitting science against the clock. "In the scientific race to defuse the ticking bomb of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis--it may be too late. "The tuberculosis crisis is getting worse fast, even as I write these words. Russia has created a disastrous TB epidemic in its prisons and is spreading it with the release of hundreds of thousands of prisoners each year. AIDS cases are increasing faster in Russia than anywhere in the world, and AIDS and TB are like gasoline and a match. The World Health Organization has identified 22 TB hot spots around the world. The threat is at our doorstep and we can no longer ignore it. The timebomb is about to explode, and we are not ready." --from the Introduction Tuberculosis has been with us for 10,000 years, yet it kills more people today than ever before. Two billion people--one-third of the world's population--are infected with latent tuberculosis. Ten percent of those infected will develop active TB in their lifetimes. A disease supposedly defeated by antibiotics half a century ago, TB has returned--in a new shape and with a far more deadly arsenal. Multi-drug resistantTB can be impervious to our outmoded drugs. It is predicted to cause 30 million deaths over the next decade--and you get it simply by breathing. Written by one of the world's preeminent TB experts and an award-winning medical writer, "Timebomb details the evolution and current state of the multi-drug resistant TB epidemic. From the overcrowded prisons of Siberia to the streets of New York City, the authors sound the alarm on this global epidemic and herald the work of the men and women who are laboring on the frontlines, waging real-life biowarfare, in a scientific race to defuse the ticking bomb. Visit the Timebomb website: www.TBtimebomb.com

Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients Under Dots Plus

  • Filename: treatment-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-under-dots-plus.
  • ISBN: 1361323337
  • Release Date: 2017-01-26
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Shuo Feng
  • Publisher: Open Dissertation Press



This dissertation, "Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients Under DOTS-Plus: a Systematic Review" by Shuo, Feng, 冯硕, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Objective The consistent emerging of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases are increasingly becoming a major threat and challenge in global TB control, especially in some resource-limited settings like India, China, South Africa. Currently there is no widely acknowledged treatment strategy for MDR-TB. Effectiveness and of current DOTS-Plus strategy is remaining controversial. This systematic review aims to investigate treatment outcomes for MDR-TB under DOTS-Plus and potential factors associated with poor outcome (death, default and failure). Methodology The literatures were searched in Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane library, Essential Evidence Plus, EMBASE and CNKI. Some manual search articles were also added and 164 literatures in total were founded related to treatment outcomes for multidrug resistant patients under DOTS-Plus. After basically screening and carefully full-text reading, nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included. A total of 3358 participants from 8 high MDR-TB countries were investigated. Result Baseline characters were varied across these nine studies, including HIV prevalence (0-1.6%), MDR-TB prevalence (0-4.7%), previous treatment history (without TB treatment, with TB treatment but not under directly observed therapy, short courses (DOTS) and with TB treatment under DOTS), and male/female ratio (54%-86.5%). All studies reported a successful outcome rate (cure and complete) higher than 60 percent, and three of the studies reported higher than 70 percent, which are comparatively high in MDR-TB treatment. Factors associated with poor outcomes that reported by these studies were including alcohol use/ abuse, homelessness, unemployment, imprisonment, BMI, cavitary and bilateral disease, missing doses, and resistant to some second-line drugs. Conclusion In sum, the overall treatment outcomes from these nine studies under DOTS-Plus were acceptable, and most of them were satisfactory. Nevertheless, in consideration of potential bias arising from these cohort analyses, conclusions should be drawn carefully. Several major challenges restrict low- and middle- income countries from implementing DOTS-Plus, which put high command on TB infrastructure, policy commitment, human resources and financial support. Further effort could be put on systematical review and meta-analysis on cost-effectiveness of DOTS-Plus programs. In China, policy makers should pay attention to arrive at national and provincial guidelines of MDR-TB treatment under DOTS-Plus. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5098462 Subjects: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis - Treatment

The Long Term Outcome and Impact of Multidrug resistant Tuberculosis in Henan Province China

  • Filename: the-long-term-outcome-and-impact-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-henan-province-china.
  • ISBN: OCLC:953337620
  • Release Date: 2013
  • Number of pages: 592
  • Author: Yanni Sun
  • Publisher:



China has the second largest burden of TB cases in the world and its burden of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB: resistant to the two principal chemotherapy agents - isoniazid and rifampicin) is also among the highest in the world. Henan, as one of the most populous provinces in China, bears the highest burdens of TB and MDR-TB cases in the country. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Henan, particularly the impact on clinical and socioeconomic outcomes compared to non-MDR-TB, is poorly documented and requires investigation. The aim of this project was to understand the epidemiology and long term outcomes of MDR-TB in Henan, China. Two research components were employed to achieve the aim of the study. The first component characterised the epidemiology of TB and MDR-TB in Henan. Secondary data on surveillance for TB and data from periodic national surveys were used to describe epidemiological features of TB and drug resistance in Henan. For the second component, a prognostic cohort study was conducted. People with TB from 17 counties (150 non-MDR-TB & 100 MDR-TB patients) were sampled from the drug resistance survey dataset that had been generated by Henan TB Control and Prevention Institute in 2001 and long term (9-year) outcomes were ascertained. The first component of the study showed that the incidence of TB in Henan Province is in the middle range for China. In 2007, 3.0 percent of new and 21.7 percent of previously treated TB cases were MDR-TB. The second component of the study investigated 9-year outcomes for the prognostic cohort. Among MDR-TB patients at follow up the proportion who had died was twice that among non-MDR-TB patients (43.0% vs 21.6%). There was a much lower cure rate among MDR-TB patients (63.8%) than non-MDR-TB patients (92.0%). Socioeconomic outcomes also differed. The MDR-TB patients were less able to work, and more often changed their future plans and health behaviour. MDR cases had lower household incomes and were less wealthy. MDR-TB cases or relatives reported much higher TB treatment costs (30.2% vs 9.5% exceeding 10,000 Yuan), and more frequent loans (44.3% vs 26.1%) with less frequent loan repayment (19.0% vs 4.5%). Community impact was also investigated in the second part of this project. Overall, the study revealed little difference in community impact for the measured variables (reported stress, neighbour developing TB after the patient, number of registered TB patients in the community). One negative impact of MDR-TB noted for community residents was increased fear of TB. But there was no evidence that MDR-TB increased risk within the patients' communities. The main limitation of the prognostic cohort study was the difficulty in accurately categorising the social and economic outcomes many years after they occurred. Despite the limitation, this thesis produces original findings revealing and quantifying the adverse long term (9-year) clinical and socioeconomic outcomes of MDR-TB and impacts on patient, family and community in Henan Province, China. These findings will assist TB control policy and service in Henan Province and in the rest of China.

DIRECT DETECTION OF MULTIDRUG

  • Filename: direct-detection-of-multidrug.
  • ISBN: 1360992669
  • Release Date: 2017-01-26
  • Number of pages: 114
  • Author: Ka-Ki Chu
  • Publisher: Open Dissertation Press



This dissertation, "Direct Detection of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) in Respiratory Specimen Using DNA Amplification" by Ka-ki, Chu, 朱嘉琪, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4516081 Subjects: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis - Molecular diagnosis Gene amplification

The PIH Guide to the Medical Management of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

  • Filename: the-pih-guide-to-the-medical-management-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis.
  • ISBN: 0615893058
  • Release Date: 2013-12-01
  • Number of pages:
  • Author: Kwonjune Seung
  • Publisher:



This guide is a resource for physicians and other health care professionals who provide care and treatment to patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis. This is the second edition of The PIH Guide to the Medical Management of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis first published in 2003.

DIRECT DETECTION OF MULTIDRUG

  • Filename: direct-detection-of-multidrug.
  • ISBN: 1360992669
  • Release Date: 2017-01-26
  • Number of pages: 114
  • Author: Ka-Ki Chu
  • Publisher: Open Dissertation Press



This dissertation, "Direct Detection of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) in Respiratory Specimen Using DNA Amplification" by Ka-ki, Chu, 朱嘉琪, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4516081 Subjects: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis - Molecular diagnosis Gene amplification

DMCA - Contact